By Wayles Browne, Theresa Alt
Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian are 3 standardized types according to very comparable linguistic fabric. for plenty of humans the time period "language" potential standardized kind of a language, and during this which means we will converse of a Bosnian language, a Croatian language, and a Serbian language. "Language" is also a process that enables verbal exchange, and during this that means we will give some thought to all 3 to make up one language. Serbo-Croatian used to be the conventional time period. The non-native learner will often are looking to decide to pay attention to Bosnian or Croatian or Serbian, yet studying any of those actively plus a few wisdom of the diversities will enable the learner to participate within the verbal exchange process during the entire quarter. This description will use the time period BCS to indicate what the 3 criteria have in universal. the diversities in grammar are usually not very a variety of and may be mentioned as we cross alongside. the diversities in vocabulary are extra a number of; a few could be mentioned within the vocabulary part.
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Extra resources for A Handbook of Bosnian, Serbian and Croatian
Neuters take -ce or various extended versions: pismo 'letter', pisamce ; grlo 'throat', grl-ašce. ': čobanin 'shepherd', čobanče (genitive čobančeta) 'shepherd boy'; guska 'goose', gušče 'gosling'. All of these can be affectionate diminutives. There is also a special affectionate type that shortens names to (consonant)-vowel-consonant and adds o,-e or –a : Ivo or Ive from Ivan, Mara, Mare or Maja from Marija. Augmentatives take -ina and extensions: brod-ina 'big (ugly) boat', sob-etina 'big (ugly) room'.
The first means 'to go (in one or 41 several directions, on foot or by vehicle)', the second 'to walk'. In several instances the old determinate verb appears only as a perfective verb with a prefix, and the indeterminate verb serves to imperfectivize it. Thus nositi is imperfective 'to carry', and there is no verb "n(ij)eti". Don(ij)eti, present dones-em is perfective 'to bring', and donositi is the corresponding imperfective. Certain motion verbs derive explicit multidirectionals: nosati 'to carry about'.
Archaic and literary usage may have accusatives me, te, nj, se with prepositions, as za nj 'for him' = za njega, preda se 'in front of oneself' = pred sebe. 2 Demonstrative, possessive and other pronouns have a characteristic set of endings, again with many alternative forms (Table 9). 33 'this, that' singular NOM ACC GEN DL INST 234 plural NOM ACC GEN DLI 'our(s)' NOM ACC GEN DL INST 234 plural NOM ACC GEN DLI masculine neuter feminine taj NOM or GEN tog(a) tom(e,u) tim,time to to tog(a) tom(e,u) tim,time ta tu te toj tom ta ta te ti te tih tim,tima ta ta tih tim,tima te te tih tim,tima masculine naš NOM or GEN našeg(a) našem(u) našim neuter naše naše našeg(a) našem(u) našim feminine naša našu naše našoj našom naša naša naše naši naše naših našim(a) naša naša naših našim(a) naše naše naših našim(a) Table 9.