By Robert F. Boszhardt
On hand December 2003 the commonest relics of the 12,000-year occupancy of the higher Mississippi River Valley could be the chipped stone projectile issues that local american citizens mounted to the ends in their spears, darts, and arrow shafts. this helpful advisor offers a key to picking many of the forms of issues discovered alongside the higher Mississippi River within the Driftless zone stretching approximately from Dubuque, Iowa, to purple Wing, Minnesota, yet framed inside of a just a little better region extending from the Rock Island Rapids on the smooth Moline-Rock Island quarter to the Falls of St. Anthony at Minneapolis-St. Paul. Logging tens of hundreds of thousands of miles and vacationing deepest creditors from all walks of existence on account that 1982, Robert Boszhardt has documented hundreds of thousands of projectile issues present in this sector. as well as drawings of every variety, he presents different authorised names in addition to names of comparable issues, age, distribution, an outline (including size and width), fabric, and references for every kind. The consultant is intended for the numerous avocational archaeologists who acquire projectile issues within the higher Midwest and should be an invaluable reference device for pro box archaeologists to boot. Emphasizing the protection of websites in addition to a mutual alternate of data among expert and avocational archaeologists, this consultant will demonstrate projectile issues as clues to the previous, time markers which embrace the most important information regarding the cultures of the Mississippi River Valley's early population.
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Extra resources for A Projectile Point Guide for the Upper Mississippi River Valley (Bur Oak Guide)
Description: In the Upper Mississippi Valley, ﬂuted points are known to have been made of Hixton siliciﬁed sandstone, Cochrane chert, Prairie du Chien chert, Moline chert, and Jasper taconite. Most of these have traditionally been designated Clovis or in a few instances Folsom. More recently, eastern ﬂuted point types have been reported. Stoltman has interpreted the ﬂuted point that was probably found with the Boaz mastodon as a Gainey point. That point is manufactured from Hixton siliciﬁed sandstone.
This style becomes rare east of the Mississippi River but is known as far east as Lake Michigan. The eared variety is unknown on the Plains. Scottsbluﬀ points have been found in Late Paleo cremation sites, such as at the Renier site near Green Bay, Wisconsin, and the Gorto site on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. r e c t o r u n n i n g f o o t | 29 Other possible related Late Paleo ritual sites are Pope in central Wisconsin and Deadman Slough in north-central Wisconsin. description: These are well-made, medium to long lanceolate spear-knife points.
Gainey is named after the Gainey site in southeastern Michigan. other possible names or related points: Barnes, Cumberland, Crowﬁeld, De- bert, Enterline –Bull Brook. . Gainey points are found in southern Michigan and Ontario and west to the Mississippi River. distribution: i n t r o d u c t i o n | 17 Gainey points are comparable to Clovis in being longer than Folsom. However, whereas channel ﬂake scars on Clovis points do not exceed half the blade length, Gainey points have long, Folsom-like, ﬂutes that run well beyond half the length of the blade.