A Textbook of Robotics 1: Basic Concepts by Moshe Shoham (auth.)

By Moshe Shoham (auth.)

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51 Basic Concepts Direct drive means that the motor is mounted directly on the joint it moves. If the motor is mounted far from the joint - usually near the robot base - the drive is indirect. Motion in indirect drive is transferred from the motor to the joint by transmission devices which include such elements as rods, chains, and gears. Figure 3-18 shows direct and indirect drives in a typical robot. 18: A robot may have direct and indirect drive systems Following are the main reasons why indirect drive is preferable to direct drive: * ~'< Reduces the weight of the mechanical arm by mounting motors at the robot base.

Rotating axis 1 to a new position 90 degrees from the current position changes the motion of axis 2; instead of pitch motion, it now executes yaw motion. Figure 3-7 is an example of many possible robot wrist joint arrangements. Obviously, the ability to alter wrist attitude in various ways is a vital concern in robot design. Figure 3-15 is another example. It shows the initial position of the mechanical arm and two possible changes in the location of the end effector or in its orientation. Alternate position 1 shows a change in end effector orientation without location change.

Various types of drives exist, and they are generally classified as follows: * Revolute and prismatic * Electric, hydraulic, and pneumatic ':' Direct and indirect Revolute and Prismatic Drive Revolute, or rotary, drive is a motor. When it is connected to its energy source (electricity, oil pressure, or air pressure), the motor axis responds in a rotary motion. The load attached to the motor axis is moved by the rotation of the axis. Prismatic drive is a hydraulic or pneumatic cylinder, making up a prismatic joint.

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