Archaeological Obsidian Studies: Method and Theory by M. Steven Shackley (auth.), M. Steven Shackley (eds.)

By M. Steven Shackley (auth.), M. Steven Shackley (eds.)

This quantity is the 3rd within the Advances in Archaeological and Museum technology sequence backed via the Society for Archaeological Sciences (SAS). the aim of this sequence is to supply summaries of advances in numerous themes in ar­ chaeometry, archaeological technology, environmental archaeology, protection know-how, and museum conservation. The SAS exists to inspire interdisciplinary collaboration among archaeologists and co-workers within the ordinary and actual sciences. SAS mem­ bers are drawn from many disciplinary fields. notwithstanding, all of them percentage a typical trust that actual technological know-how recommendations and strategies represent a vital part of up to date archaeological box and laboratory experiences. The sequence editors desire to thank the reviewers of every of the chapters during this quantity for his or her first-class reviews and recommendations. We additionally desire to thank Chriss jones for her beneficial suggestions within the guidance of the texts for submission to the writer. xi Preface As famous within the introductory bankruptcy, this quantity is the second one significant evaluate of analysis growth within the examine of archaeological obsidian. An previous publication, Advances in Obsidian Glass reports: Archaeological and Geochemical views, seemed in 1976. A comparability of the remedy of issues mirrored during this prior paintings and that contained during this quantity not just highlights vital advances within the caliber and intensity of analysis on archaeological obsidian over greater than 1 / 4 of a century but in addition illustrates extra commonly a few features of advancements within the archaeological technological know-how box in general.

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This occurs most often when the group mean concentration for an element is near the detection limit. For example, the elements Sr and Ba are near or below the NAA detection limit for a number of obsidian sources. Rather than completely eliminate specimens with occasional missing values from consideration, it is possible to substitute by computing a value that minimizes the Mahalanobis distance for that specimen from the group centroid. As a result, the substitute concentration values for these few specimens will have little effect on the statistical characteristics of the group and enables them to be included in all group calculations.

Thus far, less than ten sources have been 22 MICHAEL D. GLASCOCK et al. spatially located and chemically characterized in the entire Andes region. Thus, a great deal of work still remains before substantial reconstruction of the obsidian exchange networks in South America will be possible. , Sappington 1981, 1984) have failed to consider the significance of particular elements and, instead, assigned equal weight to all measured elements. Unfortunately, this practice may result in an increased number of misclassifications.

The principles of NAA differ from XRF in that samples are irradiated by thermal neutrons (usually from a nuclear reactor). During irradiation, a few neutrons are captured by the nuclei of atoms in the specimen. This process, called activation, causes some of the nuclei to become unstable. During and after neutron irradiation, these unstable nuclei emit gamma rays with unique energies at rates defined by the characteristic half-lives of the radioactive nuclei. Identification of the radioactive nucleus is possible by measuring the gammaray energies.

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