Becoming White Clay: A History and Archaeology of Jicarilla by B. Sunday Eiselt

By B. Sunday Eiselt

The tale of 1 of the longest-lived and so much winning nomadic enclaves in North the United States presents a unprecedented glimpse into the cloth expressions of Apache self-determination and survival. for almost two hundred years the Jicarilla Apache of latest Mexico thrived within the interstices of Pueblo and Spanish settlements following their expulsion from the Plains. severe to their luck used to be their skill to increase key facets of Plains-Pueblo alternate to Indian and mixed-blood groups at the fringes of colonial rule. greater than different nomadic tribes, the Jicarilla performed an immense function in maintaining jointly the social cloth of latest Mexican villages after the autumn of the Spanish Empire.

This complete learn by way of Sunday Eiselt starts with the nice Athapaskan migration out of Canada in the course of prehis-toric instances and ends with the compelled payment of the Jicarilla at the Dulce reservation within the Eighteen Eighties. Eiselt combines archaeological and ethno­historical facts in an exam of Jicarilla concepts for self-preservation. She unearths the ideological and political imperatives of “­belonging” that formed their interactions with neighborhood groups and the kingdom and that enabled them to prevent reservation lifestyles good into the Eighties. all through their lengthy historical past, Jicarilla id remained intact, detailed, and discernable while lifestyles at the reservation disrupted the intimate connections that after existed with their Hispanic and Pueblo neighbors.

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Canadian border). They base this conclusion on linguistic evidence, especially shared neologisms for plants, animals, and objects of Plains derivation, as well as similarities with southern interior Canadian Athapaskan languages (specifically, Tsuu t’ina [Sarsi] and Dene Syųłiné [Chipewyan]). , Magne and Matson 2004, 2007; Huscher and Huscher 1942; Wilmeth 1979). A widely distributed ancestral speech community, extending across significant geographic barriers, ought to result in the creation of divergent neologisms.

Construction of vessel walls included patch accretion and coiling. Vessel walls are thin and are finished with a combination of wiping, scraping, and shaping with a thong- or cord-wrapped paddle and anvil (called simple stamping). Vessel surfaces are occasionally burnished or wet-smoothed (Gilmore and Larmore 2005). Some rim faces show evidence that they were burnished while leather hard, leaving a visible sheen or luster. Rims are commonly thickened, squared, or folded. Decoration 46 | Chapter 3 is rare but includes parallel diagonal tool impressions on rim faces or near rims.

Michael Rowton (1973, 1974, 1977) provided the first systematic treatment of this phenomenon, developing the concepts of “enclosed nomadism” and “integrated tribe” to describe the Mari kingdom of the Mesopotamian steppe during the 4th century bc. He argued that the usual dichotomy between nomadic and sedentary did not apply. Rather, the Mari were an integrated confederation (in his words, a “dimorphic chiefdom”) composed of settled and nomadic elements, some of which resided in the settled zone.

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