Bioethics Yearbook: Regional Developments in Bioethics: by B. Andrew Lustig (auth.), B. Andrew Lustig (eds.)

By B. Andrew Lustig (auth.), B. Andrew Lustig (eds.)

nology in New Zealand. Angeles Tan Alora stories at the Code of Pharmaceutical Marketmg Practices constructed via the Pharmaceutical and overall healthiness Care organization of the Philippines. Ruud ter Meulen and his colleagues offer designated research of the Remmelink Commission's file on euthanasia within the Netherlands. Kazumasa Hoshino discusses the fmdings of the particular Committee on Gene treatment in Japan. As such examples recommend, the actions of many governmental teams advisory our bodies, even supposing assorted, are inclined to converge upon a couple of specifically very important concerns. If one peruses the index of files mentioned in quantity 4, definite themes are extra frequently the point of interest of laws and reputable crisis than others: withholding and retreating remedy, entry to wellbeing and fitness care, consent to remedy and experimentation, and matters posed via HIV checking out and AIDS. this kind of universal concentration shouldn't be exaggerated, for the dialogue of subject matters is wide-ranging. yet that commonality, whilst in proof, is usually no longer outstanding. It means that key concerns and issues in bioethics can be extensively shared between glossy cultures and societies, for the entire area of expertise of a selected nation's or region's reaction to them. problems with trained consent, in spite of everything, implicate extra primary issues of recognize for people and the rights of people within the contexts of treatment and study. problems with entry to remedy concretize deeper questions about the character and scope of a society's welfare duties to its citizens.

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BIOETHICS IN THE UNITED STATES 43 D. Patient Self-Determination Act The success of the most prominent legislative initiative, the Patient Self Determination Act (PSDA), effective December 1, 1991, has been difficult to measure (see [292], pp. 3-4). Designed to increase patient autonomy by encouraging patients to make advance directives, the PSDA appears to have had little effect on the behavior of the public or physicians with respect to end of life decisions during the two years since its implementation.

Prenatal exposure to drugs can have devastating effects on the developing fetus, although the effects vary widely among infants. From 1989 to 1992, at least 167 women in 24 states have been arrested on criminal charges related to their pregnancies [258]. The vast majority of these cases involved the use of illegal substances; however, some cases involved the use of alcohol, noncompliance with physician's orders, or a combination of these three factors [258]. To date, no criminal conviction involving a pregnant woman's transmission of a controlled SUbstance to her fetus has been upheld [258].

Pregnant women and women of child-bearing age have also been prevented from participating in clinical trials because of concern that fetal harms might result from the experimental treatment. A. Criminalization of Substance Abuse by Pregnant Women In the United States, an estimated 375,000 children are exposed to controlled substances before birth each year ([225];[348)). Prenatal exposure to drugs can have devastating effects on the developing fetus, although the effects vary widely among infants.

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