Biopolymers: Utilizing Nature's Advanced Materials (ACS by Syed H. Imam, Richard V. Greene, Baqar R. Zaidi

By Syed H. Imam, Richard V. Greene, Baqar R. Zaidi

This publication examines biotechnological, chemical, and engineering elements of biopolymers and their blends. It makes a speciality of processing and characterization, biopolymer synthesis and degradation, and new purposes. bankruptcy subject matters contain biodegradable plastics, environmental cleanup, nanocomposite matrices, salient enzymology, suggestions for tracking bioplastics in dwelling cells, and biopolymers for meals packaging. fabrics mentioned contain starch and cellulosics (including xylans), chitin, proteins, long-chain fatty acids, mesquite gums, and lignin.

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In 1959, to examine the aromatic character of lignin and its chemical binding with carbohydrates, Tischenko at the St. Petersburg Forestry Academy reported the ozonization of wood and lignin samples in non-aqueous solvents. Carbohydrate-free and carbohydrate-containing lignin isolated as triozonides were quantified through mild heating and a reaction with KMnCU producing oxalic acid. Lignin containing carbohydrates was found to consist of 60 to 68% lignin triozonide and 32 to 40% carbohydrates (Shevchenko, U B C , personal communication, 1998).

Aulin-Erdtman in 1949 used U V spectra of lignins to demonstrate that isolated lignins were indeed aromatic. Studies of U V absorption of isolated lignins and lignin in woody tissue by Lange (775) in 1944 and by Aulin-Erdtman (206) in 1949, convinced most investigators that gymnosperm lignin was indeed a condensation polymer of coniferyl aldehyde as proposed by Klason some fifty years earlier. ; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1999. ch001 It was determined that the lignin polymer, in contrast to other biopolymers, had no optical activity and no stereoregularity.

These products were applied in rubber, printing ink and ceramic industries. Books. The 1925-1949 years marked the appearance of the first books on lignin: Chemie der Ligninkorper by Kurschner ((52); The Chemistry of Wood, by Hawley and Wise (181), and The Chemistry of Wood and Cellulose, by Schorger (64). In 1947 came Hunter's informative book (4) on the History of Papermaking. 1950 -1974: This was a period of significant progress was made in the understanding of lignin structure spurned on by the development of new analytical tools and procedures.

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