By Michiel S. De Vries

This is a e-book approximately making offerings in keeping with the assessment of choices. the results of selections are frequently worse than humans count on. This booklet discusses the main difficulties in comparing classes of motion and examines the political contexts within which judgements are made. the subject material of this e-book is on the crossroads of coverage and learn technique. How can details derived from empirical learn gain a policy-maker or determination maker, and the way should still this data be integrated within the decision-making process?

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22 An introduction to making calculated choices These problems, however, are not on the same level and do not have the same cause, consequences or solution. Obscure and ambiguous objectives Obscure and ambiguous objectives can be the consequence of a political negotiating process between various actors. Two or more departments may have a different opinion about the objective of a certain policy. The result of this difference, when persistent, may be that the policy will not be pursued; however, it can also be regulated by reformulating the objective in order to satisfy evelY department.

Including alternatives can also depend on the inclusion of other alternatives. e. Markerwaard, Noordoostpolder and Flevopolder. Because the Markerwaard was located nearest to the cities in the west of Holland and for the rest seemed to have identical advantages and disadvantages compared to the other two locations, the only alternative analysed was the Markerwaard. The moment it became clear that the Markermeer (a lake) was not to be turned into the Markerwaard (a polder) this alternative disappeared.

The reason for this is human decision makers' level of comprehension, the implicit deliberation they make when choosing between alternatives and criteria, and the implicit shift of decision rules. 3 Test scores Alternatives have a score for each criterion. In the example given in section 1, a Miele washing machine costs 11200. This is called a criterion score. Chapter 5 will discuss the possibilities for determining these scores of alternatives on criteria. Four methods of investigation are essential: the use of argumentation, case studies, perfOlmance indicators and experimentation.