Chemical Binding and Structure by J. E. Spice and J. E. Spice (Auth.)

By J. E. Spice and J. E. Spice (Auth.)

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12). These orientations are usually taken to be along the x, y and ζ axes, and the corresponding wave functions are therefore known as px, py and pz. Each of these surfaces is rather loosely referred to as an orbital. More precisely, an orbital is the region in which an electron with given values of η, I and m moves. The exact significance of this concept has been fully examined for s electrons, but for ρ electrons its meaning is n o t quite so clear. It is incorrect to visualise a px electron as an hour-glass shaped distribution of electron gas or electric charge.

28 Chemical Binding and Structure in a spherical shell rises to a maximum at the value of r for which 2 2 the function [R(r)] r is a maximum. Clearly, no definite meaning can be attached to the radius of an electron orbit, but it may be defined either as the value of r corresponding to the maximum of 2 2 [R(r)] r , or as the radius of the sphere within which there is, say, a 90 per cent chance of finding the electron. In this sense the orbit of a 2s electron is obviously larger than that of a Is electron.

Class 2 This includes the alkali and alkaline earth metals, in Groups IA and IIA of the Mendeleeff table. The chemistry of these metals is, practically speaking, the chemistry of their cations—cations with a rare gas configuration which, because of the overriding stability of such an arrangement, have no tendency to lose or gain electrons to give ions of a different charge. The alkali and alkaline earth metals show the least tendency of all the elements (except the rare gases) to form covalent bonds.

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