By Andreas Jess;Peter Wasserscheid
This textbook offers an crucial and built-in therapy of industrial-relevant difficulties for college kids of either chemistry and chemical engineering.
As such, this paintings combines the 4 disciplines of chemical expertise - chemistry, thermal and mechanical unit operations, chemical response engineering and common chemical expertise - and is equipped into major components. the 1st covers the basics, in addition to the research and layout of business techniques, whereas the second one part offers 20 concrete strategies, exemplifying the inherent utilized nature of chemical expertise. those are chosen so they all range with admire to one very important point, similar to the kind and layout of the reactor, the chemistry concerned or the separation approach used. hence, readers will recapitulate, deepen and workout the chemical and engineering ideas and their interaction, in addition to having the ability to follow them to commercial practice.
Instructive figures, ideas of thumb for fast yet trustworthy estimating of parameters, facts of chemical media, and examples using information from business techniques facilitate and increase the examine procedure. A small common survey of chosen sleek traits, reminiscent of multifunctional and micro reactors, or new solvents for homogeneous catalysis, corresponding to ionic drinks, indicate to the reader that this isn't a concluded discipline,
yet a constructing box with many demanding situations ready to be solved.
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Extra info for Chemical Technology: An Integral Textbook
Several important factors inﬂuence whether a given nucleophilic substitution reaction proceeds more according to the SN1 or the SN2 mechanism: Choice of solvent: The higher the dielectric permittivity e of the solvent the better is the solvation of the ion pair in the SN1 mechanism, leading to increasing probability of an SN1 mechanism. Note that nucleophilic substitution according to the SN1 mechanism is typically not found in gas-phase reactions. Groups surrounding the carbon atom at which the substitution reaction proceeds: The higher the steric demand of the remaining substituents at the carbon atom the more difﬁcult it is to realize the transition state required by the SN2 route.
The reactive p-electrons of these compounds are attacked by electrophiles, resulting in the formation of a positively charged reaction intermediate. Stabilization of this positive charge plays a very important role in the regioselectivity of electrophilic addition reactions. 11 for the addition of HBr to propene, a reaction that produces almost uniquely the product 2-bromopropane and almost no 1-bromopropane as a consequence of the inductive stabilization of the secondary propyl cation compared to the cation with the charge at C1.
Alternatively, a radical reaction can be stopped by adding to the reaction mixture substances that react very easily with radicals by forming very stable radicals themselves so that the propagation reaction is terminated. Examples of such radical scavenger molecules are phenols, quinones, and diphenylamines. 6 Chain termination in radical reactions by either (a) reaction of two radicals, exemplified for poly(vinyl chloride) synthesis, Ra ¼ initial radical, or (b) disproportionation, exemplified for the reaction of two butyl radicals relevant in steam cracking.