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Extra resources for Chimariko Grammar: Areal and Typological Perspective (University of California Publications in Linguistics)
The two related languages, Yurok and Wiyot, share two traits: both have voiceless laterals and labialized consonants. Obstruent voicing is only found in Wiyot as a recent development (Mithun 2004c). Similar tendencies can be found when Chimariko is compared to distant neighbors to the east. Table 7: Characteristics of Chimariko and its distant neighbors to the east Language Chimariko Yana¹ Achumawi² Maidu³ Language Family isolate Hokan Hokan: KarukPenutian: Shasta:Palaihninan Maiduan Consonants 33 22 17 18 Stop series pl, asp, glott pl, glott pl pl, glott Obstruent no yes yes (only affricate, yes voicing not contrastive) Back velar q yes no yes no Voiceless lateral no no no no Retroflex ṭ yes no no no Gemination no no no no Labialized cons.
For Shasta, a high-low pitch tonal accent has been described. Hence the acoustic correlate of stress in Chimariko, which is pitch, is also attested in other languages of the area. Given that stress is easily transferred through language contact, it is likely that the languages in Northern California have shifted their stress patterns as a result of multilingualism in the area. For Chimariko it can be speculated that vowel length on stressed syllables was developing as a contact phenomenon given the weight-sensitive stress systems of neighboring languages with CVV as the heaviest syllable type.
Nominal roots with more than three syllables are rare and may be attributed to lexicalisation effects. Examples of nominal roots are given below. 14. 1 Phonotactic restrictions. All consonants occur as onsets. The rhotic /r/ never appears in word-initial position, and /kʰ/ appears only rarely. The glottalized stop /p’/ occurs only before back vowels in onsets, and the glottalized /t’/ is rare overall. All but aspirated and glottalized phonemes occur as codas. Typologically, glottalized consonants are seldom part of codas.