Compiling functional languages by Leroy X.

By Leroy X.

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Note: the function code_fn above has no free variables. The occurrence of code_fn in makeblock(code_fn, \ldots) denotes a pointer to its (fixed) code. 53 From intermediate language to machine code Standard compiler technology applies largely unchanged. g. Modern Compiler Implementation in ML, Andrew W. Appel, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998. ) Calls to a computed address are expensive on modern processors: • the destination address is usually not predicted in advance; • this stalls the pipeline (cannot fetch and start executing instructions from the called function while earlier instructions complete).

S ) 44 Towards full correctness The previous theorem shows the correctness of the abstract machine for terminating terms. However, if the term a does not terminate, e a ⇒ v does not hold, and we do not know anything about the execution of the compiled code. ) To show correctness for all terms (terminating or not), we need to establish a simulation between machine transitions and source-level reductions: Each transition of the machine corresponds to zero, one, or several source-level reductions.

Initial states: D(C(a) | ε | ε) = a if a is closed. s) = D(v). 49 Correctness theorem Theorem: Let a be a closed term and S = (C(a) | ε | ε). ∗ • If a → v, then the abstract machine started in state S terminates and returns the value C(v). • If a reduces infinitely, the machine started in state S performs an infinite number of transitions. 50 Part 3 Optimized compilation of functions: flow analysis 51 Compilation to optimized machine code Step 1: Replace functions by closures; make explicit the construction, passing, and accessing of the environments.

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