By Gordon G.; Spinks Geoffrey M.; Kane-Maguire, Leon A. P.; Teasdale, Pe ? Wallace
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Extra info for Conductive Electroactive Polymers
129 Microfluidics is an area that is particularly attractive for CEP-based MEMS because of the compatibility of CEPs with wet environments. Micropump systems have been developed using CEP actuators. Lee and coworkers134 have presented a membrane pump using polypyrrole as a diaphragm so that the displacement in liquid electrolyte was hundreds of microns. 137,138 In one study,139 the surface energies of polyaniline and polythiophene CEPs were found to change significantly by oxidation and reduction.
Interaction between the probe tip and the sample drives a feedback system that allows topographical mapping of the sample surface. 29 Force–distance plot for (a) polypyrrole (NO3−) and (b) polyaniline (HCl) on carbon foil. ing microscopy (STM) uses the tunneling current between the tip and the (electrically conductive) surface, whereas atomic force microscopy (AFM) uses the force of attraction (or repulsion) between the tip and the sample surface. The resolution of the piezoelectric transducers used to move the tip is such that atomic-scale resolution can be achieved (magnification × 109).
In addition, conventional techniques do not normally allow the imposition of stimuli capable of collecting information on the molecular changes brought about by these stimuli in real time. 22). These include • • • • Electrochemical methods Dynamic contact angle measurements Quartz crystal mircogravimetry In situ spectroscopy • UV-visible spectroscopy • Circular dichroism spectroscopy • Raman spectroscopy • Electron spin resonance spectroscopy • Inverse chromatography • Scanning probe microscopy • In situ mechanical testing Electrochemical Methods Electrochemical methods are applicable in our case due to the inherent conductivity of the polymers under investigation.