By Hugh O Pierson
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Extra info for Handbook of chemical vapor depostion [i.e. deposition] (CVD) : principles, technology, and applications
Critical deposition temperature of niobium as a function of NbCl5 initial pressure. 44 Handbook of Chemical Vapor Deposition This example shows the great degree of flexibility that can be obtained in CVD if a proper understanding of the thermodynamics and kinetics is gained. In this particular case, it was possible to deposit a uniform layer of NbC on a graphite rod simply by limiting the reaction to the deposition of the metal. Since the carbide could only be formed using the substrate as a carbon source, the rate was controlled by the diffusion rate of the carbon through the coating and deposition uniformity was achieved over the length of the graphite rod.
Is still in the lead followed by Japan and Europe with Pacific-Rim countries coming up fast. The business is going through rapid changes as companies are sold, partnership created and dissolved, international joint ventures started, and new production facilities built all over the world. S. and abroad, is essentially captive; that is, the CVD processing is an integral part of sequential operations. This is particularly true in the field of semiconductor and microelectronics where most manufacturers have their own CVD facilities which, more often than not, are incorporated within a production line.
The relationship is expressed by the following equation: Eq. (1) ∆Gr °= Σ∆G f ° products − Σ∆G f ° reactants The free energy of formation is not a fixed value but varies as a function of several parameters which include the type of reactants, the molar ratio of these reactants, the process temperature, and the process pressure. This relationship is represented by the following equation: Fundamentals of CVD 39 Eq. i = standard free energy of formation of species “i” at temperature T and 1 atm. R = gas constant T = absolute temperature Q = Πi a zii ai = activity of species “i” which is = 1 for pure solids and = pi = xiPT for gases pi = partial pressure of species “i” xi = mole fraction of species “i” PT = total pressure By definition, the free energy change for a reaction at equilibrium is zero, hence: Eq.